Psychology was founded in the U.S.S.R. by Lev Vygotsky and
his associates in the 1920’s. Vygotsky’s writings
emphasize how culture, history and social factors predict cognitive
development. This Psychology was based on the newly adopted Marxist philosophy which the U.S.S.R. adopted after the Russian Revolution.
Vygotsky states, “The search for method becomes one
of the most important problems of the entire enterprise of understanding
the uniquely human forms of psychological activity. In this case,
the method is simultaneously prerequisite and product, the tool
and the result of the study.” Mind and Society, 1978, p.
argues that language is the most symbolic tool provided by society.
A key element in Vygotsky’s theory is the idea that
the potential for cognitive development depends upon the “zone
of proximal development” (ZPD) which is fully achieved through